Animation Overview:

Key frame Animation 

keyframepathThe model is placed in a starting pose or position, and a key frame is set. Some frame later, another key frame is set, and the model is moved as desired. This process is repeated as many times as needed. The animation software interpolates the motion needed to move the model smoothly between the key frames. What this means is that if the animator keys a box, and moves the box across the room in the next key frame, when the scene is scrubbed or viewed, the box will glide across the floor instead of jumping from frame to frame. This applies to anything in the scene – moving fingers, eyelids, moving lips,etc.

Nonlinear Animation

After animating a character with key frames or motion capture, its animation data can be collected into single, editable sequence. This animation sequence is called an animation clip.There are two types of clip: source clip and regular clips.Which preserve and protects a character’s original animation curves by storing them in source clips. Source clip are not used to animate the characters. Instead, copies or instances of source clips called regular clips are used to animate the characters non linearly.

Moving, manipulating, and blending regular clips to produce a smooth series of motions for a character is the basic of nonlinear animation.The tool with which all these aspects of a character’s nonlinear animation can be managed is the Trax Editor.

Path AnimationPathAnimPic

path animation controls the position and rotation of an object along a curve. An object must first be attached to the curve for it to become  a path curve. Motion paths can be generated by animating objects using motion path keys.



riggedSkeletonSkeletons are hierarchical, articulated structures that let the animator pose and animate bound models. A skeleton provides a deformable model with a similar underlying structure as the human skeleton gives the human body. Just like in the human body, the location of joints and the number of joints you add ta a skeleton determine how the skeleton’s bound model or ‘body’ moves. The process of binding a character to it’s  skeleton is called “Skinning”. The process of  making a skeleton or bones, refining the joints, using IK or FK, putting handles on the joints so animators can manipulate them, and over all making the model ready for animation is called “Rigging”.

Forward Kinematics

FKForward Kinematics (FK) is an animation method that involves moving each joint without the restriction of an expected final position. Thus, the ‘goal’ is to move a joint ( or series of joints) as desired, and the final pose is a consequence of those movements. Forward Kinematics is often used for finally-tuned joint movement (such as hands & fingers), as it allows for more complete control over posing.

Inverse Kinematics


IKThe reverse of Forward Kinematics, Inverse Kinematics is a method that involves defining a final pose, and generating joint movement as needed to reach that pose. Thus, the ‘goal’ is for all joints to be in a final pose, and the individual joint movement are a consequence of getting to that final pose. Joints  must have carefully defined limits to their possible motion for Inverse Kinematics to work well, or the joints can end up ‘flopping’ before reaching the goal pose. Inverse Kinematics is often used for large limb movement (such as walking, reaching.etc.).


weightpaint-cylinder“Skinning” is the process of setting up a character’s model so that it can be deformed by a skeleton. You skin a model by binding a skeleton to the model. A model can be bound to a skeleton by a variety of skinning methods, including smooth skinning and rigid skinning. Smooth skinning and rigid skinning are direct skinning methods. Indirect skinning methods can also be used, which combine the use of lattice or wrap deformers with either smooth or rigid skinning.



“Constraints” enable the animators to constrain the position, orientation, or scale of an object to other objects. Constraints are often used to depict characters manipulating or interacting with props or the environment. Further, with constraints specific limits on object and automate animation process can be imposed.


“Deformers” are high-level tools that you can use to manipulate (when modeling) or drive (when animating) the low-level components of a target geometry. In other The following are the many types of deformers : Blend Shape deformer, Lattice deformer, Cluster deformer, Jiggle deformer, Wire deformer, Wrinkle deformer, Wrap deformer, Point On Curve deformer.