Archive for January, 2013

Flip Book-Flip Book History

A Flip book (sometimes, especially in British English, flick book) is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the picture appear to animation by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are often illustrated books for children, but may also be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books or magazines, often in the page corners. Software packages and websites are also available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books.


Flip books are essentially a primitive form of animation. Like motion pictures, they rely on persistence of vision to create the illusion that continuous motion is being seen rather than a series of discontinuous images being exchanged in succession. Rather than “reading” left to right, a viewer simply stares at the same location of the picture in the flip book as the pages turn. The book must also be flipped with enough speed for the illusion to work, so the standard way to “read” a flip book is to hold the book with one hand and flip through its pages with the thumb of the other hand. Ten German word for flip book-Daumenkino, literally”thumb cinema”-reflects this process.


The first flip book appeared in September, 1868, when it was patented by John Barnes Linnett under the name Kineograph (“moving picture”).They were the first form of animation to employ a liner sequence of images rather than circular The German film pioneer, flip book,first exhibited his serial photographic image in flip book form in 1894, as he and his brother Emil did not develop their own film projector until the following year. In 1894, Herman Casler invented a mechanized form of flip book called the Mutoscope, which mounted the pages on a central rotating cylinder rather than binding them in a book. The mutoscope remained a popular attraction through the mid-20th century, appearing as coin-operated machines in penny arcades and amusement parks. In 1897, the English filmmaker Henry William Short marketed his “Filoscope”, which was a flip book placed in a metal holder to facilitate flipping.

Flip books are now largely considered a toy or novelty for children, and were once a common “prize” in cereal and Cracker Jack boxes. However, in addition to their role in the birth of cinema, they have also been an effective promotional tool since their creation for such decidedly adult products as automobiles and cigarettes. They continue to be used in marking of all kinds, as well as in art and published photographic collections.



How Animation Works _Why 24 Frames

Scientific Theory of Animation-Persistence of Vision 

Animation is an art and science; it’s a new art form that evolved from technical innovations in frame projector science. Learning the concept of animation will be easy by learning the scientific principle that helps animation work. So what is that principle? It’s very simple and is based on a simple theory-persistence of vision, according to which, a human eye can retain the images for more time when more images are projected at high speed. That means a human eye requires some time to conceive a single image. When multiple images are shown within a less span of time, the eye will retain all images and the result is an illusion-That is Animation.


For example, multimedia images carries an action printed on them like a rolling ball, with some replacement in the positions of successive rolling ball, rolling in a path in all images. Consider that total number of images is 24, and the time images are exposed to eye is 1 second. That means on an average, each image is exposed one twenty four time of a second and within the next one twenty fourth of a second, the second image will follow. This time it is not enough to grasp all information about an image for the eyes, so the image will be retained for a longer time in memory. When these multiple number of images are retained in the memory, the replacement in their position causes an illusion of motion, like that of a ball rolling.

Why 24 Frames Per Second?


You can even try 12 frames per second but the action you see will not be appealing. For live action movies the applicable rate is 30 frames per second and for TV animation. any drawing that is produced for an action will be exposed twice. That means, to produce a second of animated action you will need 12 drawings which is equal to 24 frames. The reason is to get some mileage. For features, exposure rate will be in 1’s and it all depends in what kind of an action whether it is a slow one or a fast one. For example, a fast running character should be exposed in 1’s. So that action looks very kinetic. This entire pattern comes under the concept of animation timing. Timing play a major role in animation, especially, in helping it defy the live action movies in extreme action like, Tom and Jerry’s cut to chase sequences. You might have wondered what makes TOM & JERRY performs those extreme action and attain an elastic personality. This is the result of proper application of animation timing.

How to Measure Length of Animation?

Animation is measured in footage. In animation, footage is nothing but length of animation measured in feet. Normally one foot of animation is equal to the length of 16 frames of animation. That means one second of animation is equal to one half feet.

  • 1 foot = 16 frames
  • 1 sec animation=24 frames = 1 1/2 feet.

Frame Rates:

The frame rate that you work at is a very important factor in the final quality of your animation. The frame rate determines how many frames per second are displayed when you playback your animation. If you set the frame rate too high, you have to produce too many drawings. If you set it too low, your animation will look choppy.

12 frames per second (FPS) are recommended for drawn animation. This is one half of the frame rate used by film. This is referred to as ‘drawing on twos’

Typical Frame Rates:

12 fps: The majority of cartoon animation is drawn on twos. When put on film, the frames are exposed twice to make 24 fps. In our case, we can simply play back at 12 fps.

15 fps: Less typical would be animation drawn for twos on video.

24 fps: Film

25 fps: Pal Phase Alternate Line  (European) Television.

29.97 fps: When color was added to the television standard, a slight adjustment had to be made to accommodate the extra signal used for color. The video still plays at 30 fps, but occasionally a frame has to be dropped to keep up. This is called ‘Drop frame’

30 fps: Black and White NTSC National Television System Committee (US) Television.

Animation Techniques

What is Animation?

Animation is the process by which we see still picture move. Each picture is shot on film one at a time and is shown at the rate of 24 picture per second making the pictures appear to move.

Why do we see these image as moving? 

The reason our eyes are tricked into seeing movement can be explained by the ‘Persistence of Vision’ theory.

The persistence of vision theory:

Our brine holds onto  an image for a second after the image has passed. If the eye sees a series of still images very quickly one picture after another, then the images will appear to move because our eyes cannot cope with fast-moving images-our eyes have been tricked into thinking they have seen movement.

The moving Hand Theory:

You can do this by waving your hand in front of your eyes very fast. You will seem to see several hands at once. Try doing this in front of a television screen when it is switched on. You will see even more images of your hand because the television is actually flickering. By waving your hand in front of it you make your eyes very confused about what they are actually seeing.

Basic techniques used in animation:

1. Drawn Animation.

2. Cutout Animation.

3. Model Animation.

4. Computer Animation.

5. Others.

Drawn Animation:


This covers any form where another replace one drawing in a sequence. Each drawing is slightly different from the one before. It works the way a flip book does. These animated films are made up of thousands of drawing which are shown on screen very quickly one after the other.

Cutout Animation:


This cover any form of animation where cutout shapes are moved around or replaced by other cutouts. Flat objects like buttons, matchsticks and string can also be used in this form of animation. Cutout can also be laid on top of drawings.

Model Animation:


This involves the filming of puppets or any form of three-dimensional models. The materials used could include plasticize, clay or wire-in fact anything that can be bent or formed into another shape. The puppets are positioned and filmed before being moved ever so slightly and filmed again. These shots are put together as a piece of film and will give the impression of the models moving.

Computer Animation:


Animation has historically been produced in two ways. The first is by artists creating a succession of cartoon frames, which are then combined into film. A second method is by  using physical models,e.g. King Kong, which are positioned, the image recorded, then the model is moved, the next image is recorded, and this process is continued.

Using a rendering machine to produce successive frame where in some aspect of the image is varied can produce computer animation. For a simple animation this might be just moving the camera or the relative motion of rigid bodies in the scene. This is analogous to the second technique described above,i.e., using physical models. More sophisticated computer animation can move the camera and or the object in more interesting way,e.g. along computed curved paths, and can even use the laws of physics to determine the behavior of objects.

Animation is used in visualization to show the time dependent behavior of complex systems. A major part of animation is motion control  Early system did not have the computational power to allow for animation preview and interactive control. Also, many early animator were computer scientists rather than artists. Thus, scripting system were developed. These system were used as a computer high-level language where the animator wrote a script (program) to control the animation. Whereas a high level programming language allows for the definition of complex data types, the scripting language allowed for the definition of “actors”, object with their own animation rules.

Virtual Reality Technology

At the convergence of technology and creative invention in multimedia is virtual reality,or VR. Helmets,Goggles, special gloves and bizarre human interface attempt to place you” inside” a lifelike experience.Take a step forward and the view gets closer; turn your hand moves in front of you .Maybe the object explodes in a 90- decibel crescendo as you wrap your finger around it.Or it slips out from your grip, falls to the floor, and hurriedly escapes through a mouse hole at the bottom of the wall.

Virtual-Reality-300x212Virtual Reality require terrific computing horsepower to be realistic.In virtual Reality, your cyberspace is made up of many thousands of geometric object plotted in three- dimensional space:  the more object and the more points that describe the objects, the higher the resolution and the more realistic your view, As you move about, each motion or action requires the computer to recalculate the position, angle, size, and shape of all the object that make up your view, and many thousands of computations must occur as fast as 30 times per second to seem smooth.

On the World Wide Web,standards for transmitting virtual reality world or scenes in VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) documents (with the file name extension .wrl) have been developed.Intel and software makers such as Adobe have announced support for new 3-D technologies.

Using high speed dedicated computers, Multi-million-dollar flight simulators built by Singer, RediFusion, and other have led the way in commercial application of Virtual Reality .Pilots of F-16s, Boeing 777s and Rockwell space shuttles have made many simulated dry runs before doing the real thing.At the Maine Maritime Academy and other merchant marine officer training schools,computer-controlled simulators teach the intricate loading and unloading of oil tankers and container ships.

   Specialized public game arcades have been built recently to offer Virtual Reality combat and flying experience for a price. For example, Battle Tech is a  ten-minute interactive video encounter with hostile robots, created by Virtual World Entertainment, and located in both California and Illinois. In couches in the same area called a Containment Bay. The computer keeps score in a fast and sweaty firefight. Similar “attractions” will bring Virtual Reality to the public, particularly a youthful public, with increasing presence in the marketplace.

   People who work in VR do not see themselves as part of “multimedia.” Virtual Reality deals with goggles and gloves and is still a research field where no authoring products are available, and you need a hell of a computer to develop the real-time 3-D graphics. Although there is a middle ground covered by such thing as Quick Time Virtual Reality and VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) that gives multimedia developers a “window” into Virtual Reality, people often confuse multimedia and Virtual Reality  and want to create futuristic environments using multimedia-authoring tools not designed for that purpose.

Virtual Reality is an extension of multimedia and it uses the basic multimedia elements of imagery,sound and animation.Because it require instrumented feedback from a wired-up person, Virtual Reality is perhaps interactive multimedia at its fullest extension.

Multimedia in Schools

Schools are perhaps the destination most in need of multimedia.Many schools in  the United State today are chronically under funded and occasionally slow to adopt new technologies and it is here that the power of multimedia can be maximized for the greatest long term benefit to all.

   classroomIn the 1990s,the U.S. government challenged the telecommunications industry to connect every classroom,library,clinic and hospital in america to the information superhighway.Funded by telephone surcharges               (e Rate),most schools and libraries in America are now connected.Steps have also been taken to provide governmental support for state of the art technology in low-income rural and urban school districts,The National Grid for Learning (NGfL)  has established similar aims for schools in the United Kingdom.

   Multimedia will provoke radical changes in the teaching process during the coming decades,particularly as smart student discover they can go beyond the limits of traditional teaching method. There is indeed a move away from the transmission or passive learner model of learning to the experiential learning. In some instances teachers may become more like guides and mentors or facilitators of learning leading students along a learning path,rather than the more traditional role of being the primary providers of information and understanding.The students,not teachers,become the core of the teaching and learning process.This is a sensitive and highly politicized subject among educators,so educational software is often positioned as enriching the learning process,not as a potential substitute for traditional teacher based methods.

   An advanced electronic teaching tool prepared by Yale University School of Medicine. It provides physicians with over 100 case presentation and gives cardiologists, radiologists, medical student, and fellows an opportunity for in-depth learning of new clinical technique in nuclear cardiac per fusion imaging.

   An interesting use of multimedia in school involves the students themselves. Students can put together interactive magazines and they can even make Quick Time movie. They can also design and run web sites.

Technological literacy must become the standard . Preparing children for life time of computer use is just as essential today as teaching them the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic.

   At one time, laser discs brought the greatest amount of multimedia to the classroom-in 1994, there were more than 20,500 educational titles available on laser disc for grades K-12, the majority aimed at science and social science curricula. Use of laser disc has been supplanted as schools have purchased more computers with CD-ROM and DVD players. And as school become part of the Internet, multimedia arrives by glass fiber and over a network.

    ITV (interactive TV) is widely used among campuses to join students from different location into one class with on teacher.Remote trucks containing computers,generators and a satellite dish can be dispatched to area where people want to learn  but have no computers or schools near them.In the online version of school,student can enroll at schools all over the world and interact with particular teacher and other students classes can be accessed at the convenience of the student,s lifestyle while the teacher may be relaxing on a beach and communicating via wireless system.For example ,offer classes to student who do not wish to spend gas money,fight traffic and compete for parking space they even provide training to professors so they can learn how best to present their classes online.

Uses of Multimedia

Uses of Multimedia :

Multimedia is appropriate whenever a human interface connects a human user to electronic information of any kind.Multimedia enhances minimalist,text only computer interface  and yields measurable benefit  by gaining and holding attention and interest in short,multimedia improve information retention.When it’s properly constructed,multimedia can also be profoundly entertaining as well as useful.Multimedia in Business,Multimedia in  Presentation,Multimedia in Classroom,Multimedia at home,Multimedia in Web Design,Multimedia in Medical,  Multimedia in Public Places,etc…

Multimedia in Business Presentation:

     Multimedia is a very effective presentation and sales tool.If you’re being driven somewhere in the back seat of a car,you may not remember how you got to your destination.If you had been driving the car yourself,chances are you could get there again.SMULTIMEDIA-PRESENTATIONtudies indicate that if you’re stimulated with audio,you will have about a 20 percent retention rate.With audio visual,retention is up to 30 percent and in interactive multimedia presentations,where you are really involved,the retention rate is as high as 60 percent.

     Business applications for multimedia include presentations,training,marketing,advertising,product  demos,simulations,database,catalogs,instant messaging and networked communications.Voice mail and video conferencing are provided on many local and wide area networks (LANs and WANs) using distributed networks and internet protocols.

After a morning of mind numbing overhead presentation delivered from the podium of a national sales conference, a multimedia presentation can make an audience come alive.Most presentation software packages let you add audio and video clips to the usual slide show of graphics and text material.

Multimedia is enjoying widespread use in training programs.Flight attendants learn to manage international terrorism and security through simulation.Drug enforcement agencies of the UN are trained using interactive videos and photographs to recognize likely hiding places on air planes and ship. Medical doctors and veterinarians can practice surgery methods via simulation prior to actual surgery.Mechanics learn to repair engines.Salespeople  learn about product lines and leave behind software to train their customers. Fighter pilots practice full terrain sorties before spooling up for the real thing.Increasingly easy to use authoring programs and media production tool even let workers on assembly lines create their own training program for use by their peers.

“Animated instructional and training multimedia can simulate the real thing, allowing trainees to actually turn valves and flip switches.”

     Multimedia around the office has also become more commonplace. Image capture hardware is used for building employee ID and badging database, for video annotation, and for real-time teleconferencing. Presentation documents attached to e-mail and video conferencing is widely available. Laptop computers and high-resolution projectors are commonplace for multimedia presentation on the road. Cell phones and personal digital assistance (PDAs) utilizing Bluetooth and Wi-Fi communication technology make communication and the pursuit of business more efficient.

  As businesses and companies catch onto the power of multimedia,tje cost of installing multimedia capability decreases meaning that more applications can be developed both in house and by third parties,which allow business to run more smoothly and effectively.These advances will change the very way business is transacted by affirming the use of multimedia that offers a significant contribution to the bottom line while also advertising the publish image of the business as an investor in technology.

Multimedia is a combination of digitally manipulated text,photographs, graphic art,sound,animation and video elements.When you allow an end user also known as the viewer of a multimedia project to control what and when the elements are delivered it is called interactive multimedia.When you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes hypermedia.

     Although the definition of multimedia is a simple one making it work can be complicated.Not o12nly do you need to understand how to make each multimedia elements stand up and dance but you also need to know how to use multimedia into meaningful tapestries are called multimedia developers.

   The software vehicle, the messages, and the content presented on a computer, television screen, PDA (personal digital assistant) or cell phone together constitute a multimedia project. If the project is to be shipped or sold to consumers or end users, typically in a box or sleeve or delivered on the Internet, with or without instructions, it is a multimedia title. Your project may also be a page or site on the World Wide Web, where you can weave the elements of multimedia into documents with HTML (Hyper Markup Language) or DHTML (Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language) or XML (eXtensible Markup Language ) and play rich media files created in such programs as Adobe’s Flash, Live Motion  or Apple’s Quick Time by installing plug-ins into a browser application such as Internet Explorer or Firefox. Browsers are software program ao tools for viewing content on the Web.

     A multimedia project need not be interactive to be called multimedia user can sit back and watch it just as they do a movie or the television.In such cases a project is linear, or starting at the beginning and running through to the end.When user are give navigational becomes nonlinear and user interactive and is a powerful personal gateway to information.

   Determine how a user will interact with and navigate through the content of a project requires great animation to the message, the scripting or story-boarding  the artwork, and the programming. You can also lose the message in a project with inadequate or inaccurate content.

    Multimedia elements are typically sewn together into a project using authoring tools.These software tools are designed to manage individual multimedia elements and provide user interactive. Integrated multimedia is the weaving part of the multimedia definition where source documents such as montage,graphics,video cuts and sounds merge into a final presentation.In addition to providing a method for user to interact with the project most authoring tools also offer facilities for for creating and editing text and image and controls for playing back separate audio and video files that have created with editing tools designed for these media.The sum of what gets played back and how it is presented to the viewer on a monitor is the graphical user interface, or GUI (pronounced “gooey”). The graphical user interface is more than just the actual graphics on the screen it also often provides the rule or structure for the user’s input.The hardware and software that govern the limits of what can happen here are multimedia platform or environment.

Cartoons TV Shows

Cartoon made exclusively for television had been around since Jay Ward’s “Crusader Rabbit” in  1949, but production of TV animation didn’t really hit it’s stride until about 1960, when most of the cinematic cartoon studios harocky-and-bullwinkle-crusader-rabbitd shut their doors. Bill Hanna and Joe Barbara, former MGM director and creators of Tom and Jerry, dominated the market almost from it’s inception and continued to do so through the 1970s.

Unfortunately, Hanna and Barbara never understood that just because something works once, that doesn’t mean the same thing will work again. In their 20 years together at MGM they never made anything except Tom and Jerry cartoons. But at least Tom and Jerry had been well animated and cleverly written.

The duo’s television hits are considerably lesser in quality (one gets the feeling they succeeded merely because there was downright abysmal. Despite  it’s flat, one-dimensional character and campy, formulaic stories, “Scooby-Doo” proved extremely popular in 1969, so Hanna-Barbara made “Speed Buggy”, “Jabber Jaw”, and The Clue Club”, which were all variations on the same character and theme. “The Flintstones” begat “The Jetsons”, and “The Smurfs”  begat “The Snorks”. It was a process that stunted creativity, giving the artists even less of a chance to infuse life into their work.

Other TV cartoon studios like Filmation and DIC proved little better or even worse than Hanna-Barbara. Desperate to conquer as much air time as possible, the studio churned out series after series without any regard to aesthetic. The situation improved in the second half of the 1980s when the two big studios of old, Disney and Warner Bros.’ entered the market. Shows like Disney’s “Duck Tales” 1986  and Warner’s “Tiny Toon Adventures” 1989 were considerably better than anything their competitors were producing. Yet they still fell utterly short of the great cartoons made for the movies in the first half of the century. The budget restraints and hurried deadline of the television industry simply prohibited artists from crafting the kind of art their cinematic predecessors achieved.


Finally in the 1990s the artists in the television cartoon  industry began to figure out how to work effectively with the limitations of the field. 1992 saw the debut of Warner Bros. “Batman: The  Animated Series.” Despite the fact that the animation was contracted to various Oriental studios (by the mid 80s  the practice was almost universal in television production…it continues to be so today) the show’s creators Bruce Timm, Paul Dini, Eric Radomski, and others  managed to infuse the series with deep characterizations and strong stories, “Batman”was a first-rate cartoon. While they did not attract as much publicity as Disney’s theatrical department, the Warner Bros. TV artists were just as important to the art of animation, demonstrating that even a television cartoon series was capable of artists achievement.

It was inevitable, in spite of Winsor McCay’s warnings, that animation would become a “trade” in the form of the studio system. The complexities of bringing moving drawing to life on the screen are too time-consuming and too expensive for it to have developed otherwise. Fortunately, through the year there have been many  individuals working in the field who have been careful not to let business logistics overwhelm the artistic potential of the medium. The collective nature of the studio may prevent the artists from receiving the amount of praise an artist working solo garners, but the art attained is no less great. As long as there are creative men and women behind the drawing desk, the animated cartoon will continue to be the best of both worlds: a trade and an art.

Warner Bros Pictures

The men behind Warner Bros. cartoon juggernaut “Looney Tunes” and “Merrie looney-tunes-merrie-melodiesMelodies” have managed to beat the odds and achieve a degree of prominence in the public eye. Then again,maybe that’s because they have such unusual and distinct monikers like Friz Freleng, Tex Avery, and Chuck Jones. But to claim thus would be to belittle their accomplishment, and for once in the history of animation’s Golden Age the names of the artists outshine the name of the producer.

“Looney Tunes” began in 1930 when Disney vets Hugh Harman and Rudy Ising teamed with producer Leon Schlesinger to make cartoons, to be distributed by Warner Bros. three years later Harman and Ising left to form the MGM cartoon studio, and Schlesinger and his artists continued on their own. Unlike other studio heads who craved the limelight, Schlesinger and his successor Eddie Selzer seems to have been concerned only with making money. He left it to his directors and animation to meet the press, and gave them complete artistic freedom at the office so long as it was under budget.

The Warner artists used their creative freedom to take the medium in new direction. Directors Tex Avery and Bob Clampett broke from the Disney tradition that the other studio had begun to mimic and imbibed their film with highly exaggerated slapstick comedy. In Avery’s “Porky’s Duck Hunt” (the first appearance of Daffy Duck, 1937) and Clampett’s “Porky in Wackyland” 1938, the character appear at first to be of the naturalist Disney school, but are constantly distorted beyond all rationality, defying every law of physics for comedic effect. The other Warners artists  immediately picked up on the style, and eventually every other studio, even Disney, adopted the method. Slapstick ultimately proved to be the theatrical genre animation was best suited for.

Like Disney, the Warner Bros. studio turned the assembly-line-art system to their advantage and collaborated their talents to take the art to a higher level. Nowhere  is this better exlempified than in the creation and development of Bugs Bunny, arguably the greatest cartoon character ever. It took over 10 years and 30 films for Bugs personality to coalesce into the suave and wily comic hero that he is today. During that period he was continually tweaked by various directors and redesigned several times by different animators, notably Bob McKimso. By 1950 Warnes three animation units had reached a consensus as to who Bugs was and how he looked; while each nit made it’s own cartoons, it was the same Bugs Bunny every time. Without the tandem talent of Jones, Freleng,, it is unlikely that Bugs would have been as fully fleshed-out a character as he eventually became.It was when animation finally made the leap to television that the art truly began to suffer for business’s sake. The great Hollywood studios of the 30s, 40s, and 50s had been manned by people genuinely interested in making quality cinema. The denizens of the TV animation houses of the 60s, 70s, and 80s only cared that the product was there to market. The quality of writing was poor, and the animation itself was often so limited it barley qualified as animation at all McCay’s prophecy had finally come to pass.

Walt Disney Studio

Walt Disney the most influential studio (from an artistic as well as a commercial standpoint) in the history of animation is the Walt Disney Studio, which exploded onto the scene in 1928 with  Mick Mouse in “Steamboat Willie” and continued to dominated the field to this very day. It is at Disney that we see the studio system’s best and most  effects on the development of animation as an art form.walt

Without Disney’s streamlined organization of talent and creative collaboration the animated cartoon could never have advanced as rapidly or as beautifully as it has…yet, as at the Bray and Sullivan studios, in the process many of the men responsible for the studio’s achievements remain anonymous and forgotten. Had Disney animators Vladimir Tytla and Freddie Moore been alive during the renaissance their names might well have been numbered among Da Vici and Michelangelo. For all their accomplishments, however they remain totally eclipsed by the titanic figure of Walt Disney.

Walt Disney’s first important contribution to animation was to move his studio to Hollywood in 1923. Los Angeles had become the center of live-action film-making  but the animation industry remained rooted in New York (with a few studios scattered  throughout the Midwest, like Disney’s). Accompanying him on his move from Kansas City were Hugh Harman and Rudy Ishing, who Would eventually found the Warner Bros and MGM animation houses. These three studios were to become the leaders of the animation industry.Disney’s decision to move to California was a pivotal turning point in the development of animation as a business.

Disney Studio’s artistic attachments derived from a sort of symbiotic relationship between Walt and his employees. Like other studio heads, Walt received all the public attention and praise for the studio’s work, but unlike many of his fellow producers he was at least partly  responsible for the studio’s accomplishments. He was certainly a cinematic visionary, and can be justly credited for introducing the latest innovations in sound and color.

Walt was the one who steered cartoons away from the “rubber hose” style of the silent era dubbed thus because of the way character moved without regard to anatomy, as if all their limbs were rubber hoses and encouraged his artists to develop a realistic, naturalist style of animation in the early 1930. He was the moving force behind such groundbreaking film as “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” (1937), the first full-length animated feature, and “Pinocchio”  (1940), a film whose intricate levels of technical brilliance many animators feel has never been surpassed. But it was up to the studio artists to make Disney’s idea reality. It was Freddie Moore who led the movement towards realistic motion in cartoon with his re-definition of Mickey Mouse in such films as “The Band Concert” (1935). Disney features like “Lady and the Tramp”(1955) and “The Jungle book” (1967) could never have succeeded without the polished character animation of Ollie Johnston, Frank Thomas, Eric Larson, and others. Vladimir Tytla’s rendering of the demon Chernabog in the Night  on Bald Mountain sequence of “Fantasia”(1940) might well be the greatest work of animation ever. These extraordinarily talented men, in alliance with the vision of their leader, accomplished what Winsor McCay had deemed impossible high art in a studio setting.